JULY 1, 1860


Through this transfer, the Imperial Crown dispensed with the last of its responsibilities towards its former allies.  Initially administered under the Crown Lands Department, individual colonial responsibility over Indian affairs did not last long as, at Confederation in 1867, responsibility for “Indians and lands reserved for Indians” was given to the Canadian government under section 91 (24) of the British North America Act. This not only returned Indian Affairs to the centralized approach employed by the British, it also opened the way to extending Canada’s influence over First Nations people outside of the Dominion through the purchase of Rupert’s Land–the Hudson’s Bay Company lands–in 1869.  Canada was now responsible for addressing the needs and claims of First Nation peoples from the Atlantic to the Rocky Mountains.  In 1868, the Indian Branch was placed under the control of the Department of the Secretary of State of Canada until 1869.  

Sources:  “A History of Indian Northern Affairs Canada,” Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada.  Retrieved 8/3/2019, https://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/DAM/DAM-INTER-HQ/STAGING/texte-text/ap_htmc_inaclivr_1314920729809_eng.pdf Colette E.  Derworiz, “Federal Departments of Indigenous and Northern Affairs,” The Canadian Encyclopedia, 10/14/2008.  Retrieved 8/3/2019, https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-affairs-and-northern-development-canada
Photo:  Ottawa Notman Studio, 10/1/1869.  Prince Arthur at Mohawk Chapel with Chiefs of the Six Nations.  Public Domain in U.S.:  Pre 1/1/1925.  Public Domain in Canada either (1) because subject to Crown copyright and published more than 50 years ago, or (2) not subject to Crown copyright and created prior to January 1, 1949.  Public Domain elsewhere where copyright term is author’s life plus 70 years or less.  

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