DECEMBER 28, 1884


Born on the Winnebago Reserve in Nebraska, his name meant “War Chief.”  Why he took the name “Henry Cloud” is unknown.  The 1st Native American to enter Yale, he earned Bachelor and Master degrees there.  Studying divinity, he added a Bachelor (Auburn Theological Seminary, 1913,) and Doctorate (Emporia College, 1932).  He added “Roe” to honor a missionary couple that adopted him.  From 1913-15, Cloud was active in the Society of American Indians (SAI), sat on a Federal Commission on Indian Education, and superintended Roe Indian Institute.  While with SAI, he met Elizabeth Bender who became his wife [see April 2].  In the ‘20s, he sat on the Federal “Committee of 100” and co-authored the Meriam Report.  In the ‘30s, he superintended Haskell Institute (1931).  His work on the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 earned him the Indian Achievement Award from the Indian Council Fire.  In the ‘40s, he superintended Umatilla Indian Agency (1947).  He died in Siletz, Oregon, February 9, 1950.

Source:  Jean Sanders, "PROFILE: Henry Roe Cloud: Pioneering Native American educator," Nebraska State Education Association, 2004.  Retrieved 7/23/2019,
Photo:  Underwood & Underwood, 9/17/1931.  Library of Congress.  Public domain in U.S.:  Copyright, if one existed, was not renewed.

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