INDIAN REORGANIZATION ACT (IRA) ENACTED
Also called the Wheeler–Howard Act (Act), Pub. L. 78-383, the IRA aimed at decreasing Federal control of American Indian affairs while increasing Indian self-government & responsibility. In 1924, Congress authorized the ”Meriam Report” on the state of life on the reservations. The shocking conditions resulting from the Dawes General Allotment Act of 1887, as detailed in the 1928 “Meriam Report,” spurred demands for reform. The IRA curtailed future allotment of tribal communal lands to individuals & provided for the return of surplus lands to the tribes. It encouraged written constitutions & charters and authorized funds for the establishment of a revolving credit program for tribal land purchases, for educational assistance, and for aiding tribal organization. With the funds for purchase of land, millions of additional acres were added to the reservations and more than half of all Indian children were in public school by 1950. The Act remains the basis of Federal legislation concerning Indian affairs.
Source: “Indian Reorganization Act,” Britannica. Retrieved 11/24/2021, Indian Reorganization Act | History & Outcome | Britannica Photo: Martin Falbisoner (1978- ), 9/5/2013. Permissive Use.