FEBRUARY 12, 1825


By 1800, Creek territory covered Georgia, Alabama, and northern Florida–land desired by whites.  In 1802, Georgia ceded claims to modern Alabama and Mississippi in return for removal of Indians from within its borders.  When no removal had occurred by 1824, President James Madison sent Duncan Campbell and James Meriwether to meet with the Creek governing body, the National Council.  The Council, however, forbade the ceding of land under penalty of death.  Campbell and Meriwether contacted Council member William McIntosh who, for $400,000, ceded all Creek land in Georgia and three million acres in Alabama.  For this, the Council had McIntosh and co-conspirators executed.  When President John Quincy Adams reviewed the treaty, the conclusion was that McIntosh had no authority.  By the subsequent 1826 Treaty of Washington, the Creeks got back their Alabama land—briefly.  By 1832, they were forced to cede all land east of the Mississippi River and move to Indian Territory.

Source:  Christina Snyder, University of Pennsylvania, “Treaty of Indian Springs (1825),” Encyclopedia of Alabama, 2/6/2008.  Retrieved 6/8/2019, http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/article/h-1453
Engraving:  Charles Bird King (1785-1862), 1838.  Public Domain in U.S.:  Pre 1/1/1925.  Public Domain elsewhere where copyright term is author’s life plus 70 years or less.  

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