MARCH 19, 1738


José Gabriel Condorcanqui Noguera was a descendant of the last Inca ruler, Túpac Amaru.  He took the name Túpac Amaru II when he led the Peruvian peasants in an unsuccessful rebellion against Spanish rule.  Túpac Amaru II was a cacique (hereditary chief) in the Tinta region of southern Peru.  He received a formal Jesuit education but maintained his identification with the Indian population.  In 1780, he arrested and executed the corregidor (provincial administrator), Antonio Arriaga, on charges of cruelty. This act led to the last general Indian rebellion against Spain, at first with the support of some Creoles. The revolt, which spread throughout southern Peru and into Bolivia and Argentina, lost Creole support, however, when it became a violent battle between Indians and Europeans.  Túpac Amaru II and his family were captured in March 1781 and taken to Cuzco.   On May 18, 1781, after being forced to witness the execution of his wife and sons, he was beheaded. 

Sources:  “Túpac Amaru II,” Encyclopedia Brittanica, updated 5/14/2019.  Retrieved 6/24/2019,  Nick Sanchez, “Tupac Amaru II: Condor of Fire,” Liberation School, 2/19/2017.  Retrieved 6/24/2019,
Painting:  Author unknown, 19th Century.  Public Domain in U.S.:  Pre 1/1/1925.  Public Domain elsewhere where copyright term is author’s life plus 70 years or less.

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