OCTOBER 11, 1869


In March 1869, Canada bought the vast Rupert’s Land tract–northern Quebec & Ontario (ON) and most of the prairie provinces–from Hudson’s Bay Company. When English-speaking ON Protestant settlers poured onto the prairies, the Métis, French-Cree & Catholic, were wary. The “Red River Resistance” started as government surveyors outlined a township grid on the land of Métis farmer André Nault. His cousin, Louis Riel, and a dozen Métis forced them to leave. On November 2, Riel’s forces took unguarded Fort Garry announcing that the Métis would accept annexation for protection of their property, religion & language.  He also formed a provisional government. Canada began negotiations when nationalists threatened Fort Garry. When nationalist Thomas Scott threatened to kill Riel, he was tried by a military court in March 1870, convicted & executed. Despite resulting tensions, by May negotiations led to the birth of Manitoba. Fearing arrest, however, Riel fled to the U.S. and remained in exile until 1885.

  J.M. Bumsted, “Red River Rebellion,” The Canadian Encyclopedia, 2/7/2006.  Retrieved 3/6/2021, Red River Rebellion | The Canadian Encyclopedia
 Le Canada, CBC Learning.  Retrieved, 3/6/2021, Manitoba is Created (cbc.ca)
Photo:  Author unknown, 1870.  Provisional Government of the Métis Nation.  Public Domain. Source: Source: Library and Archives Canada under the reproduction reference number PA-012854 and under the MIKAN ID number 3194586.

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