OCTOBER 14, 1880


Born circa 1825 in what is now New Mexico, Victorio was raised among the Chihenne Apache.  His sister was famous woman warrior Lozen.  In his 20s, he rode with Nana & Geronimo and later, Mangas Coloradas, principal leader of the Tchihendeh Apache.  After Mangas Coloradas’ death, Victorio became principal chief.  Around 1870, his band settled peacefully on a reserve at Ojo Caliente.  However, in February 1877, the Army reneged and moved his people to San Carlos Reservation with horrid land and occupied by tribal enemies.  Victorio and 40 followers left the reservation in August 1879, which led to “Victorio’s War.”  Starting with a fight at Las Animas Canyon, September 18 1879, for over a year he led a series of battles while being chased by over 4,000 troops of the 9th, 10th and 6th U.S. Cavalries.  In October 1880, near Chihuahua, Mexico, he was surrounded by the Mexican Army in the Battle of Tres Castillos.  He killed himself to avoid capture.  Famed female warrior Gouyen and her son escaped.

 Kathy Weiser, “Chief Victorio—Fighting for Ancestral Lands,” Legends of America.  Retrieved 7/27/2020,  https://www.legendsofamerica.com/na-victorio/
 “Victorio,” Encyclopedia.com.  Retrieved 7/27/2020, https://www.encyclopedia.com/people/history/north-american-indigenous-peoples-biographies/victorio
Photo:  Author unknown, circa 1875.  Public Domain.  Source: http://www.greatdreams.com/apache/apache-index.htm. 

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